Allergen avoidance in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis
An overview of rhinitis
Chronic nonallergic rhinitis
Chronic rhinosinusitis: Clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and diagnosis
Allergic rhinitis: Clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and diagnosis
Pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (rhinosinusitis)
Pharmacotherapy of allergic rhinitis
Recognition and management of allergic disease during pregnancy
Etiologies of nasal symptoms: An overview
Nasal-Delivery Decongestants . Nasal-delivery decongestants are applied directly into the nasal passages with a spray, gel, drops, or vapors. Nasal decongestants come in long-acting or short-acting forms. The effects of short-acting decongestants last about 4 hours; long-acting decongestants last 6 - 12 hours. The active ingredients in nasal decongestants include oxymetazoline, xylometazoline, and phenylephrine. Nasal forms work faster than oral decongestants and may not cause as much drowsiness. However, they can cause dependency and rebound.
MFNS and BOT have virtually equivalent effects on nasal symptoms in patients with seasonal allergies. Our study was the first direct comparison between an intranasal corticosteroid spray and a systemic oral corticosteroid for seasonal allergic rhinitis. No significant differences were found in the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic corticosteroids tested, suggesting that topical corticosteroids are expected to sufficiently improve nasal symptoms without administration of oral corticosteroids. Treatment with intranasal corticosteroid spray is more strongly recommended than treatment with systemic corticoid steroids, due to the side effects associated with each treatment.