Rechargeable batteries each have a characteristic working voltage range associated with the particular cell chemistry employed. The practical voltage limits are a consequence of the onset of undesirable chemical reactions which take place beyond the safe working range. Once all the active chemicals have been transformed into the composition associated with a fully charged cell, forcing more electrical energy into the cell will cause it to heat up and to initiate further unwanted reactions between the chemical components breaking them down into forms which can not be recombined. Thus attempting to charge a cell above its upper voltage limit can produce irreversible chemical reactions which can damage the cell. The increase in temperature and pressure which accompanies these events if uncontrolled could lead to rupture or explosion of the cell and the release of dangerous chemicals or fire. Similarly, discharging a cell below its recommended lower voltage limit can also result in permanent, though less dangerous, damage due to adverse chemical reactions between the active chemicals. Protection circuits are designed to keep the cell well within its recommended working range with limits set to include a safety margin. This is discussed in more detail in the section on Protection . Cycle life estimations normally assume that the cells will only be used within their specified operating limits, however this is not always the case in practice and while straying over the limits for short periods or by a minor margin will not generally cause the immediate destruction of the cell, its cycle life will most likely be affected.
In some respects, this comparison has a powerful subtext regarding a Battle of the Powerplants. Seriously, these are two of the most interesting and best-running engines you can buy in streetbikes today. The redesigned 1050cc Triumph’s throaty growl was first heard in the 2005 Speed Triple, made its way directly into the Sprint ST and now the Tiger. It is fuel efficient, hits like a hammer at low revs, then keeps on pulling with a much broader torque band than the Duc, while offering 12,000-mile valve-adjustment intervals. The DS1100, meanwhile, expanded profoundly the likeability of Ducati’s desmodue air-cooler. It runs smoother than ever, has way more bottom-end snap and seems to pummel unbridled exuberance from every fuel molecule. All this while turning in 45 mpg, even in our heavy throttle hands! And good news for Ducati fans, valve-adjustment intervals are now 7500 miles, with costs for maintenance said to be cut by 50 percent.
Long-line: - Both elongation length and prestress force can be used to check that the correct stress levels are achieved. This cross-checking process ensures a safer, more controlled production process.
Short-line: - This method allows the wire pattern to be accurately placed, but the application of the prestress force needs to be carefully controlled.
Advantages: - Stressing is vital to producing uniformly safe sleepers. Stressing can be achieved and cross-checked easier in a Long-line production method.