It’s therefore natural to think of antibiotic therapy as the natural opposite of steroids, and this has some truth to it. In the case of infection — which, remember, is not the only cause of inflammation — steroids do inhibit the immune response. But bear in mind that antibiotics do not, as a general rule, actually support or promote the body’s inflammatory response; rather, they work independently by attacking the infection directly along their own pathways. The result is that some pathologies (such as the contentious cases of sepsis and epiglottitis) may respond both to steroids — to manage the excessive inflammatory response — and antibiotics — to help eliminate the source infection.
Contrary to ciclosporin and tacrolimus, drugs that affect the first phase of T lymphocyte activation, sirolimus affects the second phase, namely signal transduction and lymphocyte clonal proliferation. It binds to FKBP1A like tacrolimus, however the complex does not inhibit calcineurin but another protein, mTOR . Therefore, sirolimus acts synergistically with ciclosporin and, in combination with other immunosuppressants, has few side effects. Also, it indirectly inhibits several T lymphocyte-specific kinases and phosphatases, hence preventing their transition from G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle. In a similar manner, Sirolimus prevents B cell differentiation into plasma cells, reducing production of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies.